Volume 130, #2 (2022)

You are unauthorized to view this page.

Volume 130, #2 (2022)

Proceedings Cover

M. Catherine Aime and Mehrdad Abassi. Erysiphales of Indiana–  pp. 65-94. Full Article

Erysiphales (Ascomycota, Leotiomycetes), known as the powdery mildews, is an important and speciose order of fungi that infect plants. Knowledge about the species composition and distribution of these fungi within the U.S. in general, and within Indiana, is limited. In this study, we examined all historical records, including from online data aggregates and literature, as well as new and historical collections in the Kriebel Herbarium (PUL) at Purdue University, which houses one of the richest collections of plant pathogens in the state, and in the U.S. National Fungus Collections (BPI), which contains the richest national collection of phytopathogenic fungi. Herein we provide an annotated checklist of all known species of powdery mildews in Indiana; names of prior records have been updated to reflect the current taxonomic classifications for the group. A total of 104 Erysiphales taxa (100 species and four infraspecies taxa) in seven genera and their host species are confirmed, including new and updated records for the state. These data should improve attempts to record the extant fungal biodiversity in Indiana as well as providing a resource for statewide plant disease diagnosticians.


Virgil Brack, Jr., Darwin C. Brack, R. Andrew KingThe First Gray Myotis in Indiana was Actually a Southeastern Myotis. pp 95-100. Full Article

The gray myotis, Myotis grisescens, is a cavernicolous species which until recent years was infrequently found in Indiana. Walter L. Hahn collected a bat on 9 August 1907 from Twin (currently Bronson) Cave, Lawrence County, Indiana in what is now Spring Mill State Park. It was sent to Arthur H. Howell who in March of 1909 described the gray myotis and concluded Hahn’s specimen was a gray myotis. This was the first and only gray myotis known from the state for five decades. However, when one considers in combination (1) information Hahn and subsequent researchers provided, (2) the taxonomic malaise of bats in the genus Myotis at the time, (3) Hahn’s numerous captures of southeastern myotis (M. austroriparius) incorrectly identified, including four individuals capture at the same time and place as the individual he identified as a gray myotis, (4) unique coloration of some southeastern myotis, concurrent with Howell’s notation that Hahn’s bat differed ‘‘slightly in color’’ from specimens he used to describe the gray myotis, and (5) most notably, that the southeastern myotis would not be described as a species for an additional 19 years, it argues that the first recorded gray myotis in Indiana was actually a southeastern myotis.


Jeffrey D. Holland, Matthew Dittman, Adam Thada, Michael S. Finkler, Brant Fisher, F. Collin Hobbs, Robert Jean, Paul McMurray, Marc A. Milne, Timothy Rice, Stephen Russell, Jeremy Sheets, John T. Shukle, Carl Strang. Results of the 2019 Biodiversity Survey at the Poor Handmaids of Jesus Christ Ministry Center, Marshall County, Indiana. pp. 101-111. Full Article

The Biodiversity and Natural Areas Committee of the Indiana Academy of Science organizes a 24 hour biodiversity survey, or bioblitz, each summer. In 2019 the Academy of Science held a bioblitz at the Poor Handmaids of Jesus Christ Ministry Center, in Marshall County (north-central Indiana) on June 29 and June 30. This survey brought together 14 taxonomic teams and an aqueous geochemistry team. The survey resulted in 983 species being recorded across the various taxa.


Adrienne Daeger, Nathan S. Bosch, and Ryan JohnsonImpacts on Nutrient and Sediment Resuspension by Various Watercraft across Multiple Substrates, Depths, and Operating Speeds in Indiana’s Larges Natural Lake. pp. 112-122. Full Article

While a key component of lake recreation, watercraft are capable of impairing water quality, including via resuspension of nutrients and sediments from the lake bottom. As water quality influences the ecological, economic, and recreational capacities of a lake, this study set out to investigate nutrient/sediment resuspension by watercraft on Indiana’s largest natural lake, Lake Wawasee. Four experiments were performed to test the following variables in substrate resuspension by watercraft: (1) lake bottom substrate type, (2) water depth, (3) watercraft type, and (4) operating speed. Nutrient/suspended sediment samples were collected before and after the watercraft passed through the sampling area and their averages were compared using t-tests. Nutrient resuspension was observed after the wake boat in 5 ft of water, and no resuspension by any watercraft in 10–15 ft of water. Resuspension was observed after plowing (near plane) in 5 ft of water or idling in 3 ft by multiple watercraft. The results suggest that recreationalists use high impact watercraft and operational styles in water >10 ft in Lake Wawasee. Differences in macrophyte assemblage (including nonnative invasive starry stonewort, Nitellopsis obtusa) likely had a large impact on the resuspension potential of one testing area. Boating restrictions based on speed and water depth can support the recreation that draws people to lakes while protecting the lake from some damage by that recreation. Lake managers should also consider variation in bottom substrate across their lake to identify areas particularly sensitive to boating and nutrient resuspension.


Richard M. Hull, Paul Rothrock, and Eric B. Knox. Recent County-Level Additions to the Vascular Plant Flora of the Lower Indiana Wabash River Corridor. pp. 123-129. Full Article

This paper presents 131 additions to the vascular plant floras of Fountain, Gibson, Knox, Parke, Posey, Sullivan, Tippecanoe, Vermillion, Vigo, and Warren Counties in Western Indiana. These county records were documented during the first year of a three-year project to document the modern flora of the lower Indiana Wabash River corridor and represent 5.2 percent of the 2,519 voucher specimens collected. All voucher specimens are deposited at the Indiana University Herbarium (IND).


Laura Rericha-AnchorA Diagnostic Key to Ants Ecologically Affiliated with the Genus Carex. pp. 130-137. Full Article

Prepared is a diagnostic key to the worker caste of 47 ant species that ecologically affiliate with the genus Carex in Indiana and the adjacent states. This key is a supplement to the floristic work presented in Rothrock (2021) and Wilhelm & Rericha (2017) and is to be used as a tool to enrich ones study of the ecological relationships between sedges and ants. To enhance ones experience identifying ants with the key, a suggested glossary should be used, as well as a hand lens and stereo microscope.


Nathan M. HitchensIf at first you don’t succeed: Comparison of limited vs. unlimited attempts at online quizzes in an introductory geographic information systems course. pp. 138-143. Full Article

It is common for instructors to assign readings to students which cover topics that will be discussed again during class meetings, but it is also common for students to either delay doing so until just prior to exams, or not at all. Short reading quizzes, both in-class and online, are frequently used as a means to motivate students to complete reading assignments in a timely manner. At the instructor’s discretion, online quizzes allow students multiple chances to attempt a particular quiz, perhaps with time limits on each attempt, and with the possibility of the questions being drawn from a larger question pool each time. In this study, online reading quizzes were examined across two consecutive semesters in an introductory geographic information systems course, with the students in the first semester allowed unlimited attempts to complete each quiz before a deadline, and a limit of five attempts per quiz for students taking the same course the following semester. Questions were drawn from a pool for each attempt, and students were shown their overall score after an attempt, but were given no indication which questions were answered correctly. Analysis of the frequency with which students attempted the quizzes, and comparisons between the scores achieved between the two semesters, suggest differences in reading frequencies in subsets of students.


Sandy Clark-Kolaks, Kevin Gaston, Drew HollowayWhite River Mainstem 2020: A Detailed Analysis of the Fish Community and Aquatic Habitat. pp. 144-155. Full Article

The White River Mainstem Project was completed in the summer and fall of 2020 to assess the health of the West Fork White River and White River (WR) from headwaters to confluence. The Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Indiana Department of Natural Resources, and Muncie Sanitary District Bureau of Water Quality sampled 405 river miles, resulting in 62 fish community surveys yielding 17,232 fish comprising 94 species. The Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) was calculated for every sample, and the average IBI score was 41, with 79% of IBI scores above or equal to 36, indicating they can support healthy fish populations. Thirteen sites, many in the lower reaches of the White River, had IBI scores below 36, indicating fish populations are impaired. The Qualitative Habitat Evaluation Index (QHEI) was also used at each site to assess the available habitat for the fish community with 79% of sites falling within the good or excellent category and only one site falling into the poor category. Results from this project will serve as a benchmark of fish communities, water quality, and aquatic habitat found in 2020. More information about the project can be found at idem.IN.gov/WhiteRiverProject.


Jenna P. Ruoss and Randall J. BernotA Survey of Freshwater Fishes and Their Parasites Throughout Delaware County, Indiana. pp. 156-162. Full Article

Parasites are ubiquitous within ecosystems and are known to regulate host populations as well as alter trophic interactions, yet their contribution to biodiversity is typically overlooked. More specifically, how parasites may affect fish communities regarding infection intensity and trophic interactions is still misunderstood, with studies showing contradicting results. In this study, fish assemblages and their associated parasite diversity across three different lotic systems: Buck Creek, Halfway Creek, and the West Fork of the White River located in Delaware County, Indiana were examined. Percent prevalence, intensity of infection, and relative abundance of parasites were calculated. Following one sampling season, 89 fish across 21 species were collected. The overall prevalence of parasites was highest for Halfway Creek, followed by Buck Creek, with the White River having the lowest prevalence. Further, it was determined that the mean intensity of parasitic infection was 18.2, 15.9, and 3.3 for Buck Creek, Halfway Creek, and the White River, respectively.
Finally, the relative abundance of parasites for Buck Creek, Halfway Creek, and the White River was 11.0, 11.9, and 1.25, respectively. While fish assemblages were not similar among sites, parasite assemblages were
relatively similar. Overall, the parasite-host relationships determined in this study may be driven by the surrounding land use, host diet, or host size; future studies could explore these infection and transmission mechanisms in greater detail. Given the importance of how parasites may affect their communities, the subject merits further research.


Robert K. SwihartA Systematic Assessment of Indiana Mammal Research, Researchers, and Future Needs. pp. 163-178. Full Article

No systematic review has been conducted or centralized repository created for published research on wild mammals in Indiana, despite studies dating back two centuries. I conducted a systematic review in Web of Science, which produced 714 research articles on wild Indiana mammals published in 156 outlets by 1131 authors since 1906. Thirty-one authors published > 10 articles, and 29 papers were cited > 100 times. The most frequently used outlet was Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science (n ¼ 155). Most studies dealt with ecology or natural history (38.2%) and management (22.0%). Indiana myotis (Myotis sodalis) was the most frequent target of study, and bats ranked as 6 of the top 10 most-studied species. Cold spots, i.e., understudied species 3 discipline combinations that might merit increased future attention, were assessed using quantile analysis of chi-square residuals and normalized metrics of research effort. Understudied state species of current conservation concern included star-nosed mole (Condylura cristata), badger (Taxidea taxus), swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus), Franklin’s ground squirrel (Policocitellus franklinii), and least weasel (Mustela nivalis), with population declines suspected in the latter. Understudied nonlisted furbearers for which range-wide population declines have been documented included gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus). Cold spots for nongame, nonlisted species included Cryptotis and Sorex shrews and southern bog lemming (Synaptomys cooperi). This single digital source for the widely scattered primary literature on Indiana mammals should make the voluminous prior
research more accessible and useful to scientists planning future studies.


Eric M. Rubenstein. 136th Annual Academy Meeting Presidential Plenary: Clearing the Way: How Cells Unclog Clogged Channels. pp. 179-185. Full Article.

It is my pleasure to share work performed by the excellent high school, undergraduate, and master’s students in my lab at Ball State University concerning how cells unclog clogged channels. Channels – tubes through which a substance is transmitted from one end to another – make life easier. We are familiar with many channels that enable everyday life, such as straws, highway tunnels passing through mountains, and
drainpipes. As long as they remain functional, we often take these channels for granted. However, when these channels become clogged or dysfunctional, we become acutely aware of the purposes they serve. Living systems also possess channels that must be maintained in an unclogged and functional state. These include macroscopic channels, such as the human digestive tract, and microscopic channels that permit the movement of substances across otherwise impermeable cellular membranes.

Index, Volume 130 (1-2), 2021-2022


Give A Gift

Support IAS >

By financially supporting the Indiana Academy of Science with your contribution, you can help to continue the work of Indiana scientists and aspiring scientists, and help shape a future we can all be proud of.

Copyright © 2024 Indiana Academy of Science. All rights reserved.